Gladly we grant and accompany with appropriate privileges your desire, so that, in a spirit of humility, you could provide for the salvation of your own soul and those of others. You have asked us to expose that you, with other three companions who have the same feelings, to be able to dedicate yourselves with more freedom to the will of God and to what pertains to Him, you desire to profess the three substantial vows of religion in the hands of the our venerable brother the Archbishop of Milan or the Vicar General, and at the same rime to establish yourselves and to live in some place of your choice in the city or in the diocese of Milan; for this reason you have implored us that we deign, according to our apostolic benevolence, to paternally condescend to such pious desire of yours. We, then, adhering to your petition, in virtue of the apostolic authority, with this letter which will always be in vigor also in the future, by special grace, notwithstanding the Constitutions and the general or special Ordinances issued by the Holy See or by provincial or synodal Councils and notwithstanding any other disposition on the contrary, we grant and allow you and each one of you to make such profession in the hands of the said Archbishop or his Vicar; and to those who, in the future, will join you, we grant to make the same profession of the three Vows in the hands of either one of you two or in the ones of the Superior Pro Tempore of your Congregation; and so also we grant you to live together and in common in the place you will select, but under the jurisdiction of the local Ordinary: In the rather quaint language of the day, one of the original Barnabites thus describes the origin of the Order:
Mustafa Kemal Bey 4th from right listening to the briefing of French Colonel Auguste Edouard Hirschauer during the Picardie army manoeuvres, September He was proposing depolitization in the army, a proposal which was disliked by the leaders of the CUP.
As a result, he was sent away to Tripolitania Vilayet present Libyathen an Ottoman territory under the pretext of suppressing a tribal rebellion towards the end of Mustafa Kemal was instrumental in suppressing the revolt. Italo-Turkish War —12 See also: Ottoman soldiers like Mustafa Kemal went to Libya either dressed as Arabs risking imprisonment if noticed by the British authorities in Egyptor through very few available ferries the Italians, who had superior naval forces, effectively controlled the sea routes to Tripoli.
However, despite all the hardships, Mustafa Kemal's forces in Libya managed to repel the Italians on a number of occasions, such as the Battle of Tobruk on 22 December He received medical treatment for nearly a month; he attempted to leave the Red Crescent's health facilities after only two weeks, but when his eye's situation worsened, he had to return and resume treatment.
He managed to defend and retain the city and its surrounding region until the end of the Italo-Turkish War on 18 October Losing the war, the Ottoman government had to surrender TripolitaniaFezzan and Cyrenaica 3 provinces forming present-day Libya to the Kingdom of Italy with the secret Treaty of Ouchy the public version is the Treaty of Lausanne signed ten days later, on 18 October.
Mustafa Kemal was given the task of organizing and commanding the 19th Division attached to the Fifth Army during the Battle of Gallipoli. Mustafa Kemal became the front-line commander after correctly anticipating where the Allies would attack and holding his position until they retreated.
On 7 August, Mustafa Kemal rallied his troops and mounted a counteroffensive. The Seventh Army was holding the central sector of the front lines. On 19 September, at the beginning of the Battle of Megiddothe Eighth Army was holding the coastal flank, but fell apart and Liman Pasha ordered the Seventh Army to withdraw to the north in order to prevent the British from conducting a short envelopment to the Jordan River.
The Seventh Army retired towards the Jordan River but was destroyed by British aerial bombardment during its retreat from Nablus on 21 September According to Lord Kinross, Mustafa Kemal was the only Turkish general in the war who never suffered a defeat.
He organized the distribution of weapons to the civilians in Antep in case of a defensive conflict against the invading Allies.
His first goal was the establishment of an organized national movement against the occupying forces. In Junehe issued the Amasya Circulardeclaring the independence of the country was in danger. He resigned from the Ottoman Army on 8 July and the Ottoman government issued a warrant for his arrest.
Later, he was condemned to death. On 4 Septemberhe assembled a congress in Sivas. Mustafa Kemal was appointed as the head of the executive committee of the congress.
This gave Mustafa Kemal the legitimacy he needed for his future politics. Prominent nationalists at the Sivas Congress. The fourth and last term of the parliament opened in Constantinople on 12 January On 23 Aprilthe GNA opened with Mustafa Kemal as the speaker ; this act effectively created the situation of diarchy in the country.
Mustafa Kemal insisted on the country's complete independence and the safeguarding of interests of the Turkish majority on "Turkish soil". The battle resulted in a Turkish victory alongside the massacres of 5,—12, Armenians spelling the end of the remaining Armenian population in the region.
Although the conference halted on 4 February, it continued after 23 April mainly on the economic issues. On 29 Octoberthe Republic of Turkey was proclaimed.Russia Index: Chronology c Grand Principality of Rus' (later referred to as. The United States of America was created on July 4, , with the declaration of independence of thirteen British colonies.
Their independence was recognized by Great Britain with the Treaty of Paris of , following the American Revolutionary initiativeblog.com effectively doubled the size of the colonies, now able to stretch west past the Proclamation Line to the Mississippi River.
Russia Index: Chronology c Grand Principality of Rus' (later referred to as. BARNABITE FATHERS, ANGELIC SISTERS OF AND LAITY OF ST PAUL The very first religious family inspired by St Paul was founded in in Milan by Sant'Antonio Maria Zaccaria ().
The Office of Public Affairs (OPA) is the single point of contact for all inquiries about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). We read every letter, fax, or e-mail we receive, and we will convey your comments to CIA officials outside OPA as appropriate. Oklahoma City University Law Review; State Constitutions and the Right to Keep and Bear Arms, by Robert Dowlut & Janet A.