Attributes traditionally associated with masculinity and

The Birth of VenusUffizi is a classic representation of femininity painted by Sandro Botticelli. Tara Williams has suggested that modern notions of femininity in English speaking society began during the English medieval period at the time of the bubonic plague in the s. Prudence Allen has traced how the concept of "woman" changed during this period. Sex and psychology and Feminine psychology While the defining characteristics of femininity are not universally identical, some patterns exist:

Attributes traditionally associated with masculinity and

In this context, it is essential for those concerned with policy and legislation on alcohol to have a clear understanding of the sociocultural functions and meanings of drinking. This section outlines the principal conclusions that can be drawn from the available cross-cultural material regarding the symbolic uses of alcoholic beverages, the social functions of drinking-places and the roles of alcohol in transitional and celebratory rituals.

Symbolic roles From the ethnographic material available, it is clear that in all cultures where more than one type of alcoholic beverage is available, drinks are classified in terms of their social meaning, and the classification of drinks is used to define the social world.

Attributes traditionally associated with masculinity and

Alcohol is a symbolic vehicle for identifying, describing, constructing and manipulating cultural systems, values, interpersonal relationships, behavioural norms and expectations.

Choice of beverage is rarely a matter of personal taste. Situation definer At the simplest level, drinks are used to define the nature of the occasion.

In the Weiner Becken in Austria, sekt is drunk on formal occasions, while schnapps is reserved for more intimate, convivial gatherings - the type of drink served defining both the nature of the event and the social relationship between the drinkers.

Even in societies less bound by long-standing traditions and customs, where one might expect to find a more individualistic, subjective approach to the choice of drinks, the social meanings of different beverages are clearly defined and clearly understood. A US survey Klein, examined perceptions of the situational appropriateness of various types of alcoholic drink, finding that wine, but not spirits or beer, is considered an appropriate accompaniment to a meal; wine and spirits, but not beer, are appropriate drinks for celebratory events, while beer is the most appropriate drink for informal, relaxation-oriented occasions.

In cultures with a more established heritage of traditional practices, perceptions of situational appropriateness may, however, involve more complex and subtle distinctions, and rules governing the uses of certain classes of drink are likely to be more rigidly observed.

In France, for example, the aperitif is drunk before the meal, white wine is served before red, brandy and digestifs are served only at the end of the meal and so on Clarisse, ; Nahoum-Grappe, Among Hungarian Gypsies, equally strict rules apply to brandy: It would be regarded as highly inappropriate to serve or drink brandy outside these specific situational contexts Stewart, Status indicator Choice of beverage is also a significant indicator of social status.

In France, by contrast, where wine-drinking is commonplace and confers no special status, the young elite are turning to often imported beers McDonald, ; Nahoum-Grappe, Preference for high-status beverages may be an expression of aspirations, rather than a reflection of actual position in the social hierarchy.

There may also be a high degree of social differentiation within a single category of beverage. Purcell notes that in Ancient Rome, wine was not simply the drink of the elite: Wine was, and is today in many cultures, "a focus of eloquent choices".

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Certain drinks, for example, have become symbols of national identity: Guinness for the Irish, tequila for Mexicans, whisky for Scots, ouzo for Greeks etc. In other words, the older peasant drinks cider; the younger person outside agriculture opts for beer. It is, however, too soon to tell whether their current habits will persist into maturity Gamella, During their traditional cactus-wine ceremonies, the Papago of Mexico frequently became "falling-down drunk"- indeed, it was common practice among the more dandyish young men of the tribe to paint the soles of their feet with red dye, so that when they fell down drunk the attractive colour would show.

Yet the drunken behaviour of the Papago on these occasions was invariably peaceful, harmonious and good-tempered. These "two types of drinking" co-existed until the white man, in his wisdom, attempted to curb the ill-effects of alcohol on the Papago by banning all drinking, including the still-peaceful wine ceremonies.

Prohibition failed, and the wine ceremonies eventually became indistinguishable, in terms of behaviour, from the secular whiskey-drinking. Need for further research As with many other areas covered in this review, information on the symbolic meanings of different types of alcoholic drink is scattered, disjointed and incomplete, usually buried in research focused on other issues.

Again, there has been no significant cross-cultural study of this phenomenon, beyond the occasional two-country comparison.

In particular, more attention should be directed to the changes currently occurring in some European cultures. When the British, for example, an ambivalent, episodic, beer-drinking culture, go to France, an integrated, wine-drinking culture, they exhibit a tendency to drink wine in beer quantities and display all of the behavioural excesses associated with their native drinking patterns, with the result that young British tourists "are now renowned in France and elsewhere in Europe for their drinking and drunkenness" McDonald, Men's Standards Of Beauty Around The World.

An international cast of gorgeous male models shows just how drastically the physical attributes of the "ideal man" vary across 12 different countries.

The Celts were very religious and believed in reincarnation and the migration of the soul to the after life after death. They did not believe in punishment after death. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO. Facing the Earth, Grounding the Image: Representations of the Aztec Tlaltecuhtli A thesis submitted in partial satisfaction of the.

Attributes traditionally associated with masculinity and

It’s common for people to confuse sex, gender, and gender identity. But they’re actually all different things. Sex is a label — male or female — that you’re assigned by a doctor at birth based on the genitals you’re born with and the chromosomes you have.

It goes on your birth certificate. Advances in Consumer Research Volume 12, Pages A STUDY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL GENDER DIFFERENCES: APPLICATIONS FOR ADVERTISING FORMAT.

Ved Prakash, Florida International University. R. Caeli Flores, Florida International University [We wish to thank Susan Batura for her help at an early stage of this project.]. The Shame of Being a Man Steven Connor This is an expanded version of a paper given in the Gender and Sexuality seminar series, Institute of English Studies, 30 November A shortened version appeared in Textual Practice 15 ():

Yorubic Medicine: The Art of divine Herbology - East West School of Planetary Herbology