Glucose, insulin and glucagon rise during a meal and gradually decline to baseline levels shortly after a meal. A sudden drop in plasma glucose as well as insulin have been reported just prior to the onset of a meal but the functional significance of this is not yet clear. Systemic injections of glucose have no acute satiety effects but intraduodenal and intrahepatic infusions reduce food intake and free-feeding and deprived animals respectively. Treatments which decrease cellular glucose utilization directly 2-DG or indirectly insulin increase food intake while exogenous glucagon which produces hyperglycemia decreases it.
Proteins have glucagon and insulinotropic effects, which may differ depending on amino acid composition, form of intake, and rate of digestibility and absorption.
Objective The aim of this study was to test effects of isolated pea protein—based PP compared with casein protein—based CP meals differing in amino acid compositions on endocrine responses to meal tolerance tests MTTs in patients with T2D.
MTTs were performed at study onset and after 6 wk. This was accompanied by differential rates of appearance of amino acids.
The ingestion of PP resulted in significant increases in amino acids after both meals, with a decline between meals. By contrast, CP intake resulted in increases in most amino acids after breakfast, which remained elevated but did not increase further after lunch.
Conclusions PP elicits greater postprandial increases in glucagon than does CP and consequently requires higher insulin to control glucose metabolism, which appears to be related to the rate of amino acid appearance. The metabolic impact of protein quality could be used as a strategy to lower insulin needs in patients with T2D.
This trial was registered at www.So, after a meal insulin secretion is activated, glucagon secretion is minimized, and the liver takes up glucose which is then stored as glycogen to be used to buffer blood glucose at a later time.
Insulin also stimulates glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in muscles. Describe insulin and glucagon release following a high carbohydrate meal After a high carbohydrate meal, blood glucose level increases to stimulate release of insulin from the β cells in the islets of Langerhans.
A g bread meal test was performed before and after insulin therapy, and glucagon levels were measured before and after the experiment. Compared with the control group, the serum glucagon levels before treatment in both the obese and non-obese nd-T2DM patients were significantly higher (P=).
Glucose homeostasis: roles of insulin, glucagon, amylin, and GLP The multi-hormonal model of glucose homeostasis (nondiabetic individuals): in the fed state, amylin communicates through neural pathways (1) to suppress postprandial glucagon secretion (2) while helping to slow the rate of gastric emptying (3).
The role of glucose, insulin and glucagon in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Grossman SP. Glucose and related pancreatic hormones play a major role in the metabolism of monogastric mammals yet their influence on hunger and/or satiety is, as yet, poorly understood.
Insulin is not secreted if the blood glucose concentration is ≤ mmol/l, but is secreted in increasing amounts as glucose concentrations increase beyond this threshold. 14 Postprandially, the secretion of insulin occurs in two phases: an initial rapid release of preformed insulin, followed by increased insulin synthesis and release in response to blood glucose.