Since the start of the 21st century, humanity has been a predominantly urban species. This Special Issue is about the future of cities and how urbanization will develop when based on principles of sustainability. It explores the underlying dimensions of the transformation of existing cities and the design of low carbon green precincts and their urban systems. The view of the papers presented in this Special Issue is holistic and takes questions of social sustainability into account.
Based on the future projections, the present millennium may rightly be termed as the urban millennium. It is expected that urban areas in the developing countries will account for nearly 90 per cent of the projected world population increase of million people between and By the yearalmost 85 per cent of Latin Americans, 80 per cent of Europeans and 50 per cent of Afro-Asians will live in cities.
The most explosive urban growth is expected in Africa and Asia. Asia will have the largest urban population in the world, with almost twice as many people living in the cities of Africa and Latin America UN As per the World Bank estimates, more poor people will live in the cities than in rural areas in the coming years WRI Urban areas in the developing countries have multi-faceted problems like paucity of safe water, inadequate waste management, pollution hazards, occupation and degradation of sensitive lands, flooding and soil erosion in unauthorized settlements.
Multi-resource urban forest management is one of the solutions to these problems. For example, in Durban South Africa multi-functional parks are a component of slum improvement programmes. Urban parks and gardens or urban forests can rightly be called as green infrastructures that are responsible for various environmental, social and educational benefits to the human society.
Most of the products of urban forests are public goods. The intangible functions or non-market benefits obtained from these public goods are enjoyed by each resident, tourist and user. The experience of these benefits by any single person does not exclude others from experiencing similar benefits.
Although, trees have played important role in human settlements throughout the history, their full value to urban-dwellers has only recently been recognized. Trees and green spaces are important for improving the living conditions in cities. Earlier, urban forestry in Environmental Security: Now, a closer look is being given to the environmental services and quantifiable economic benefits it provides Kuchelmeister and Braatz In broader terms, urban forests are regarded as the entire forest area influenced by the urban population.
In a more restricted sense, urban forestry relates to trees and woodlands and emerging woodlands on vacant and derelict land Kuchelmeister Urban forestry is a branch of forestry with the objective of cultivation and management of trees for their potential contributions to the physiological, sociological and economic well-being of the urban society.
One striking feature of the urban forestry is that trees have considerably higher recreational and aesthetic value than in any other form of forestry.
Urban forests thus include a number of environs such as green belts, parks and gardens, zoological parks, forest reserves, commercial and industrial green belts, avenues and boulevards.
The research in urban greening has been advancing rapidly in North America through concerted actions and substantial resource allocation. In Europe, despite a long tradition of urban forestry, research is still very fragmented. In the developing nations, urban forestry is still in its infancy and is strongly oriented towards the style of the industrialized countries KhoslaTewari The list of goods and services that urban parks and gardens can provide is quite long.
Trees contribute remarkably to the aesthetic beauty of the cities, thereby, helping to maintain the psychological health of the inhabitants.
The tangible benefits of urban forests include availability of fruit, fuel, wood and small timber. Systematic planting of street trees for timber production is widely practiced in China and Malaysia Webb Environmental benefits Urban forests benefit the environment in a number of ways providing better quality of life to the inhabitants as mentioned below: Cleaning of air Air pollution is one of the major problems in urban areas.
Plants help in removal of pollutants from the air through absorption by the leaves, deposition of particulates and aerosols on leaf surfaces, and fallout of particulates on the leeward downwind side of the vegetation because of the slowing of air movement. Research on the removal of airborne pollutants by vegetation shows that plants are effective sinks for pollution.
Soil effectively absorbs gaseous pollutants, including carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone and hydrocarbons. A 30 m belt of trees has been found to intercept almost all dust in the air Kuchelmeister and Braatz Trees often mask fumes and disagreeable odours by replacing them with more pleasing scents or by actually absorbing them.
Reduction in air temperature Trees, shrubs and other vegetation help to control temperature extremes in urban environment by modifying solar radiation.Please select whether you prefer to view the MDPI pages with a view tailored for mobile displays or to view the MDPI Article 3 is looking at the role of urban greenery, including interdisciplinary principles of Junnila, S.
The Power of Urban Planning on Environmental Sustainability: A Focus Group Study in Finland. Sustainability. Greenery And Sustainability Urban Planning Environmental Sciences Essay. Print Another greenery and sustainable urban planning can be done in urban Hong Kong is by developing specifications to protect effectively trees destined for preservation in sites, especially those that are affected by buildings, roads and other construction.
The College of Agriculture, Urban Sustainability and Environmental Sciences (CAUSES) embodies the land-grant tradition of UDC. We offer cutting edge academic programs in urban sustainability, water resources management, nutrition and dietetics, urban architecture and community planning.
This complex subject has no straight forward solution, especially considering that sustainability is a goal for all to reach as they continually strive to reach towards initiativeblog.com architecture produces environmental, social and economic benefits.
Urban development should be guided by a sustainable planning and management vision that promotes interconnected green space, a multi-modal transportation system, and mixed-use development.
Diverse public and private partnerships should be used to create sustainable and livable communities that protect historic, cultural, and environmental. Urban planners, architects, landscape architects, engineers and other built-environmental professionals have a key role to play in a paradigm shift to plan for the more-than-human, because of their direct influence on the evolving urban environment.