Neil Faulkner writes about the The Long Depression — an unprecedented economic slump which started the countdown to the First World War.
It is based on the division of labor and on specialization and uses mechanical, chemical, and power-driven, as well as organizational and intellectual, aids in production. The primary objective of this method of organizing economic life, which had its genesis in the mideighteenth century, has been to reduce the real cost, per unit, of producing goods and services.
The resulting increases in output per manhour have been so large as to stagger the imagination. The average American worker today produces as much in half an hour as his British counterpart did in a whole working day a century ago, and that American worker has ten times as much industrial capital behind him as he would have had a century ago Slichter This revolutionary rise in available output and supply of economic resources has been associated primarily with the development of industrial economies in, for the most part, a limited number of countries League of Nations …; Kuznets ; Maizels By far the larger part of the dramatic rise in man-hour productivity is fairly recent—most of it occuring since the turn of the twentieth century—and apparently is still continuing powerfully in those economically advanced countries where the application of modern science to output continues to develop.
Even so, the origins of modern industrialism can be found in the distant past. Industrialization is the outcome of a long and complex historical development, and it obviously has not yet run its full course as a long-range historical phenomenon.
Judging from the record of the past, modern industry may be only a crude beginning of what is to come.
It is not just the volume of output that measures the general economic impact of industrial development. Change in the structure of final output is ceaseless. The history of economic change in the two hundred-odd years since the classical industrial revolution in England is varied and would have been difficult to predict.
The ever-changing tides of technology, and the society that produces technical change, are manifestations of continuing growth of complexity in human specialization in all matters relating to economic life.
Hence, by the s two-thirds of the labor force in the United States worked in areas not concerned directly with the production of food and manufactured goods, compared with only 16 per cent of the labor force thus employed in European and Japanese industrial growth shows the same result in the occupational distribution of the labor force over time.
Occupational diversity in nonmanufacturing life seems to be a product of industrialization wherever human society is free to respond to its own potentials as efficiency in economic life permits labor to go beyond direct production.
Historical support for these general observations may be seen in the development and general characteristics of industrial society. Workers were grouped together in factories using concentrations of capital equipment greater in cost and more efficient in operation than the capital equipment known in Britain earlier.
These factories utilized a few mechanical innovations, primarily in textiles and iron manufacturing, which, with the application of the steam enginemade factory-sized scale the most economic size for the production unit.
There is now little agreement among scholars about the origins of the industrial revolution in Britain. The older view that the agricultural improvements of the late seventeenth century and early eighteenth century, together with the rise of foreign trade, made a manufacturing sector with a rapidly increasing population possible in Britain has also been questioned.
These ultimate problems of economic historiography concerning the industrial revolution in Britain cannot be resolved here. The pattern of industrialization in other countries after has been broadly similar in many respects to that experienced by Britain, although, of course, the permutations were never the same in any two countries Maizels In most cases, substantial advances in agricultural output, or increased foreign trade, or both, have been concomitants of industrial development.
These have been essential since, as in eighteenth-century Britain, industrialization has been accompanied by two ubiquitous demographic phenomena: There has been some confusion concerning the lessons of this history. The history of successful industrial growth shows no evidence of such growth in the past Hughes Retardation in the rate of growth and even absolute decline of particular industries have also characterized industrial development, the lag in over-all growth being compensated for by new industrial ventures that come into existence and push toward their maximum growth rates, thus carrying the economy with them Kuznets pp.
No given set of industries making up a given industrial structure in any country has been responsible for industrial development, because change has been continuous.Throughout the post era, some of the greatest negative factors inhibiting industrialization have been the successive wars, continuous political hostilities, and military authoritarian regimes in the region.
WWI & Russian Revolution. STUDY. PLAY. d. Ottoman. The British were buying huge amounts of war materials from the United States.
c. a shortage of military supplies and food during World War I d. the establishment of Lenin's New Economic Policy (NEP) a.
. the emergence of two "superpowers," the United States and the Soviet Union. The tenets of Marxism called for a revolution by the proletariat, that is, the industrial workers. However, China was a nation of peasants, so an anticolonial adaptation of Marxism was provided during the s by s by.
Winston Churchill. The term "Iron. In the United States, anti-communism came to prominence with the First Red Scare of – During the s and s, opposition to communism in Europe was promoted by conservatives, social democrats, liberals and fascists.
Cultural Marxism in the U.S. Military. Posted by Socrates in communism, communism in America, Cultural Marxism, egalitarianism, The views expressed at VNN do constitute free speech as protected by the First Amendment of the Constitution of the United States.
Military spending during the “Cold War” rivalry with the Soviet Union added further to this economic expansion, creating a formidable “military-industrial complex” in the United States. 3. Leading intellectuals began to deliberate on the nature of this society and the impact it was having on American citizens.